Montessori? What's this?


     Pedagogy Montessori is a method of education known as open, compared to the methods known as closed or traditional, such as mutual teaching. Its pedagogy rests on the sensory and kinesthetic education of the child. In pedagogy Montessori, education is regarded as a “help with the life”. Montessori Colors is a bilingual school located at Blagnac which proposes to your children this pedagogy.


1 Description
1.1 Provision of the children of a concrete equipment
1.2 Importance of the significant periods
1.3 To support the autonomy of the child
1.4 the attitude of the teacher
1.5 sensory equipment
1.6 the autocorrection or “controls error”
1.7 progression of the trainings

2 History

3 Montessori today
3.1 Scientific studies of pedagogy Montessori

1 Description
1.1Mise at disposal of the children of a concrete equipment

Sensory equipment is given to the child like a development assistance of the intelligence and hand. Already in the uterus, the baby learns the environment by the data transmitted by the bodies of the directions.
The child uses freely cubes, cylinders of varied diameters, encasable objects, letters cut out in various materials…
The sensory equipment developed by Maria Montessori makes it possible to the child to distinguish, specify, generalize, from concrete towards the concept and the concept towards the abstract. It is a scientific equipment which meets the need for natural development of the child by respecting his significant periods. For:

- the order: the child classifies, orders, sorts, works out a reasoning;
- the language: the child names the concepts;
- the movement: the child refines the use of his hands;
- sensory refinement: the child reaches a great refinement with certain equipment.

This equipment is built on almost universal scientific data: tables of Pythagore, decimal system, etc It is independent of the culture of the child, unlike equipment of the practical life which largely impregnates cultural medium of the child.

The child acquires a more exact approach of reality. He opens with a more precise perception of the world. Sensory equipment becomes an instrument of investigation of reality, a decoder of reality. The child can be located in a more precise way consciously and be independent of his environment. This equipment which gives him the “keys” necessary to discover reality, becomes a “alphabet” where the child learns how to read his environment.

For Maria Montessori, it is paramount to give to the child the opportunity of opening out to the maximum its various sensitivities:

- within a framework adapted to its psychological needs;
- by respecting its own rhythm and its individual characteristics;
- all while waking up it with the social life.

1.2 Importance of the significant periods

According to Maria Montessori, each child is single. He has his own personality, his rhythm of life, his qualities and his difficulties possible. The children cross all from the “significant periods”:

They are special sensitivities in upward path, of the moments of the life of the child where this one entire “is absorbed” by a sensitivity particular to a precise element of environment.
They are momentary, transitory periods; they are limited to the acquisition of a given nature; once the developed character, the “sensitivity” ceases. It is thus paramount that environment (environment) offers to the good moment with the child the means of developing by using these significant periods.

It is about:

- the significant period of the language, more or less between 2 months and 6 years;
- the significant period of the coordination of the movements, approximately 18 months to 4 years;
- the significant period of the order, approximately of the birth at 6 years;
- the significant period of the refinement of the directions, approximately 18 months to 5 years;
- the significant period of the social behavior, approximately of 2 years and half at 6 years;
- the significant period of the small objects, during the 2nd year over a very short time.

According to Maria Montessori, “if the child could not obey the directives of his significant period, the occasion of a natural conquest is lost, lost forever”. For these significant periods, the child assimilates such or such acquisition. If the child is helped at this time precise, the training is done in-depth. But, if the newborn does not find the elements (in environment and equipment) which meet its need for the moment, the sensitivity will blanch gradually.

Maria Montessori is convinced that the forces of the development are included in the living being and that the work of education consists in preserving their spontaneousness, and to move away all that could weaken them and to prevent them from opening out.
It is necessary that the child builds itself his personality and that it develops his driving and intellectual faculties. This is why the teacher must have a complete confidence in the forces of the child, respect his liberty of action and prepare environment necessary and favorable to his development. The teacher must be able to observe the differences in rhythm of the child, it must know each child well by showing attention and of respect.

1.3 To support the autonomy of the child

One of the essential points of pedagogy Montessori is to encourage autonomy and the initiative in the child, and this, as of more the young age, on the one hand to facilitate and justify its trainings and on the other hand to support its development as anybody. Maria Montessori leaves the report according to which the motivation of the child to learn is natural. For example, he seeks to crawl, then to put itself upright, then to go. But, it also voluntarily comes towards the adult when it wants of the assistance. Maria Montessori recommends to follow this natural approach for teaching. The adult makes a demonstration then lets the child reproduce the operation all alone. One generally summarizes that by the well-known sentence of Maria Montessori: “Helps I to only make”.

The principal means employed in pedagogy Montessori to support autonomy are:
– the attitude of withdrawal of the teacher;
– the use of sensory and progressive equipment that the child can handle only and with pleasure;
– the possibility of autocorrection offered by the near total of this equipment.

1.4 the attitude of the teacher

To leave to the child sufficient initiative and to enable him to learn at its rhythm, pedagogy Montessori recommends an attitude of withdrawal on behalf of the teacher, rather different from the classical posture: once the made demonstration, it remains present in simple observer, only available if the child expresses clearly that it needs a complement of assistance or information. At the end of a certain time, the child even only works without the presence of the adult, after having been to seek itself the equipment of his choice on racks adapted to his size. At any time the teacher does not try to accelerate the process. He does not blow the answers, does not take the objects or the pencil of the hands of the child to show him once again or to give him the solution. The goal being to prevent that these interventions, perceived like a failure on behalf of the child, do not make him lose confidence in its capacity to only succeed.

1.5 sensory equipment

Equipment montessorien is designed to give to the child the possibility of discovering abstract concepts in a sensual and concrete way. Its use passes by handling and autonomous work. Esthetics plays also a part. The colors, the attracting aspect and the variety of the objects, the cards, the forms, are intended to captivate the attention and often constitute the “point of interest” of the child, which justifies it in the activity. According to Maria Montessori, it is indeed illusory to believe that the point of interest of the child can be the same one as that of the adult (to learn the addition, to discover with what an adverb is useful, etc).

This equipment is numerous. Here is a nonexhaustive list.

For the first concepts: Boxes of paints, fitments cylindrical, the pink tower, the maroon staircase, drawers of geometry, cubes of the binomial and trinomial, the triangles manufacturers, superimposed figures.

For numeration and calculation: The table of Pythagore, bars digital, spindles, the bank of the numbers, rough figures, tables of Seguin, stamps, pearls of the positive snake, tables of the addition, pearls of the negative snake, tables of the subtraction, multiplication tables, tables of division, cards geometrical.

For the oral language, the writing, reading and initiation with grammar: Rough letters, mobile alphabets, the shapes with drawing, boxes of reading, classified cards of nomenclature, grammatical slates, symbols.

1.6 the autocorrection or “controls error”

Most equipment Montessori gives to the child the opportunity of controlling only the exactitude of what it has just done. The control of the error passes for example by the comparison of a form obtained by the child with a form of reference (with equipment of Sensory Life or in geometry) or by the use of control panels (for the four operations) or by the checking of cards “indicated” after having worked about “dumb” cards (for the language). The set aim is to make it possible to the child to discover and overcome its errors by preventing that the evaluation comes from the teacher.

1.7 progression of the trainings

According to Maria Montessori, if the fact of benefitting from the significant periods is fundamental, that is not enough. It is also necessary not to seek to burn the stages. The time spent by the whole young children on activities like folding, pouring, to juxtapose, carry, etc which appear to go from oneself and are of this fact sometimes neglected, is made profitable by the child to learn how to coordinate his movements, to associate its glance and its gesture, to concentrate, organize themselves in its work. Then, the school apprenticeships – calculation, language, etc – will be made in a more natural and easy way.

2 History

Created in a poor district of Rome, this pedagogy knew all over the world to obtain the enthusiasm of thousands of teachers.

This method of education, in practice since the beginning as of years 1900, allowed the blossoming of many nursery schools then primary, and even for the young people up to 18 years.

When Maria Montessori leaves India in 1952, this method has the wheel in motion, since Maria formed of the thousands of teachers to her method.

On the other hand, the situation is definitely less pink in Occident. Following the Second World War, the number of open schools is tiny. At the end of the years 1950, there remain nothing any more but some schools open to the United States, maintained in activity by disciples of John Dewey.

The method however gently impregnates the spirits through several local initiatives (for example sister Gisèle Pelvey in France).

The years which will follow will see an expansion of its pedagogy on all the continents. In 2005, there are approximately 4,500 schools all over the world which teach according to this teaching approach.

3 Montessori today

Today, pedagogy Montessori is recognized for his capacity of cultural adaptation. And according to Marlene Barron, the director of West Side Montessori School in New York4 and member of the faculty of the higher learning in New York University, the approach Montessori would be like “a state of mind, a constellation of concepts, values; precepts and practices which make a particular vision of reality of it”.

Let us quote some famous personalities resulting from education Montessori: founders of Google, Sergey Brin and Larry Page, the founder of Jeff Bezos, the founder of Wikipedia Jimbo Wales, the musician Jeff Buckley. Anne Frank also followed an education Montessori, starting from 1934. There is also the inventor of Sims, developer of Spore and SimCity: Will Wright. “Montessori taught me the joy of the discovery. That showed me that one could be interested in complex theories, like those of Pythagore for example, while playing with cubes. It is a question of learning for oneself rather than to receive the teaching of the professor. SimCity is directly resulting from Montessori - if you give people this model of construction of the cities they draw the principles from them from town planning”.

Other personalities resulting from education Montessori: Jacqueline Kennedy, Princes William and Harry of England,
Mickael Douglas, George Clooney, Joshua Bell (American violonist, owner of the famous Stradivarius), Katharine Graham (owner and editor of Washington Post), Bill, Hillary and Chelsea Clinton, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Colombian writer (Nobel Prize of Literature), Dakota Fanning, Sean P. Didiy Combs (Puff Dadday, rapper), Melissa Gilbert, Stephen J. Cannell, Heen Hunt…

Other famous people influenced the evolution of the method Montessori

- Dalaï Lama, in the Sixties, formed of the teaching Tibetans
- Françoise Dolto member of the committee of honor of the ISSM
- Albert Jacquard member committee of honor ISSM
- Alexander Graam Bell, inventor of the first telephone, and its wife Mabel,
financially supported Maria Montssori for the opening of the first school Montessori
in the United States in 1913
- Mister Rogers, personality of television for children, was a fervent supporter
education Montessori
- Thomas Edison, inventor of the bulb contributed to the foundation
of a school Montessori
- The girl of president Wilson was teacher Montessori.
There was a class Montessori with the centre even of the White House

3.1Études scientific of pedagogy Montessori

The scientific community makes a difference between “pedagogy” and “sensory approach” Montessori.

Several work was interested in the teaching effectiveness of the schools Montessori compared to traditional teaching. Mainly led to the United States, this work tends to show that the pupils passed by this teaching get better results during evaluation of their school but so social capacities, and this same if one controls for skews of car selection.
       (Wikipedia Source)
bilingual school Toulouse, pre school montessori,bilingual pre school, international school toulouse

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